Differences between Speech and Writing
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Quotes on Writing
sounds versus letters
first and final drafts
purposes of language
interaction between listener and speaker
Radio interview with NHS Worker
Interviewer (Male): Now
Joan tell me what what do you get paid and for what working what sort
|Which comes first: speech or writing?||
Speech comes before writing historically
|Guardian report on NHS||
Labour claims 2.3 million in 'hidden' queues that belie Bottomley
|Characteristics of Spoken Language||
|Characteristics of Written Language||
Unique Written Vocabulary
some words are never really said in ordinary speech
Involved <-------> Informational
Halliday, M.A.K. (1985), Spoken and Written Language, OUP: Stubbs, M. (1980), Language and Literacy, Routledge Kegan Paul: Biber, D. (1988), Variation across Speech and Writing, CUP: Hughes, R. Comprehending Oral and Written Language USA Routledge 1996
Differences between speech and writing
Intriguing article on speech and writing are: Householder, F.W. (1971), Linguistic Speculations, CUP; Liberman, A.M. (1992), ‘The relation of speech to reading and writing’, in Frost, R. & Katz, l. (1992), Orthography, Phonology, Morphology, and Meaning, North Holland
Characteristics of spoken language
Tannen, D. (ed.) (1982), Spoken and Written Language: Exploring Orality and Literacy, Ablex, New Jersey
Characteristics of written language
Perera, K. (1984), Children’s Writing and Reading: Analysing Classroom Language, Blackwell. Tannen (1982) includes: Chafe, W.L. (1982) ‘Integration and involvement in speaking, writing, and oral literature’ p.35-54: Clancy, P.M. (1982), ‘Written and spoken style in Japanese narratives’, 55-76
Decorative English in Japan
Chocolate bars: a heroines’ treasured chocolate
born is cozy for the heroines in the town
A lovely and tiny twig is on the forest.
The sentimental taste.
A coffee cup: COFFEE.
Relax and have a nice coffee break. So you can meet the something wonderful happen
A milk shake: Nice day good day man and
Delicious and my drink
Jackets: Revolting fashion for men
Sissy Boy Posh Boy Peanut Boy
Marathon race Your life will never be the same after SCENES WE’D
In my childfood the world was fulled over with the dreams. I was very good at finding the dreams from everthing. Having dreams is the best way to get happiness, doesn’t they?
Carring on the wind in the light my heart is filled with the feelings
We send you fiery winter fun for your life
Sports bags: TOUCH DOWN I basically feel you should sports for yourself
To all players aiming at success supporting you
A truck ad: Whenever and everywhere we can meet our best friend – nature. Take a grip of steering.
See Website Engrish.com
Compensating for not Hearing the Voice in Writing
Writing can report the words that someone says but not how they are said. Here are some of the devices used in one book, Isaac Asimov’s The Stars like Dust to compensate for this lack.
said, roared, grumbled, yelled, called, called out, gasped, mumbled, whispered, screamed, interposed, began, interrupted, spoke, cried, cried out, shouted, rang out, ordered, objected, muttered, mumbled, clipped, fired at him, prompted, retorted, repeated, snapped, breathed, murmured, insisted, stuttered, asked, added, replied, broke in, grunted, demanded
Adverb or Adverb phrase:
said... huskily, sharply, respectfully, softly, coolly, carefully, blankly, earnestly, with distaste, dryly, wearily, in a breathless manner, mildly, urbanely, desperately, automatically, peevishly, miserably, in a low voice, tonelessly, mockingly, very quietly, between his teeth, curtly, very brightly, abruptly, harshly, sadly, absently, cautiously, with a careful evenness of tone, coldly, vehemently, sombrely, rapidly, pleasantly, lazily, proudly, intensely, calmly, timidly, despondently, quietly, acidly, in delight, loudly, hurriedly, in a small voice, impatiently, freezingly, with polite indifference, uncertainly, savagely, urgently, in a horrified whisper, abruptly, fuzzily
Description of the voice:
His voice was sour and sharp. The words were jerked out. ... let his voice grow confidential. His voice was almost cool as he said.... There was a trembling eagerness in his voice. It was a weak whisper. The coolness had left his voice. His voice raised to a shout ... Biron’s voice was loud. ... in a voice that struggled vainly against stupefaction... His voice climbed in enthusiasm. ... her voice troubled. He said it in a flat monotone. ... his voice over-shrill.
Biron frowned. Jonti sighed and said... But Jonti laughed. Rizzet shrugged. Biron ... started and said. Rizzett wrinkled his forehead. The older man’s voice was coldly annoyed. Jonti’s voice had an irritated edge to it. The voice was urgent.
Asimov book was chosen because of its style of introducing speech, which is
sometimes condemned in style manuals; Strunk and White say that its cause is
‘the belief that the word said is always in need of support, or because they
have been told to do it by experts in the art of bad writing’. Nevertheless most
novelists use these conventions. Opening books at random, it is easy to find
examples such as:
... said the Colonel, rather gravely (Trollope);
... he concluded with enthusiasm (Conrad);
‘Ah but you must’, Carlo delivered (Burgess);
‘Goodnight’, said Wallace Johnston hopefully (Hemingway).
Misc examples of Writing
Six year-old: I was reading the pepere this moning and it sed there was a thunderstorm and it strouck a train and mejd som holes in it and it hapend at Bolton.
Newspaper: GENEVA TALKS: NEW BREAKTHROUGH ON MIDDLE EAST
Keats Ode to a Nightingale: Where youth grows pale, and spectre-thin, and dies
Gatwick Airport: Off-airport car park courtesy coach pick-up point.
Tristram Shandy: How could you, Madam, be so inattentive in reading the last chapter?
Local paper: The latest grim find was made in the cellar
11-year old child’s experiment: Jill and me got a bowl with a 1/2 litre of water and put an egg in it and it sunk to the bottom. Then we got another bowl of water and put six spoons of salt in it and when we put the egg in it floated... Mrs Norris gave me and Jill an egg for our tea.