Rules for English past tense 'ed'

 Vivian Cook 

Writing System Home 

 

Written English

 

Spoken English

regular forms

add <ed> 'waited'

add <d> after <e> 'loved'

double the consonant and add <ed> after a checked vowel 'rubbed'

change <y> to <i> and add <ed>

regular forms

add /Id/ after /t/ /d/ /weitId/

add /d/ after a voiced phoneme /skImd/

 

 

 

irregular forms

add <t> 'learnt'

 

no change 'hit'

change vowel 'ran'

change vowel and add <t> 'left'



add /t/ after voiceless C /laikt/

irregular forms

no change /hIt/

change vowel /rQn/

change vowel add <t> /left/

 

Full explanation in The spelling of the English past tense