The Language of the

Vivian Cook

zebra crossing

This web-site looks at the signs of the street, based primarily on a total analysis of two inner-city streets in Newcastle upon Tyne, namely Leazes Park Road and Stowell Street, reported in Cook (2013), amplified by some signs from other parts of Newcastle and from Colchester, London and other cities. It is first drafts of bits of an eponymous book, to be published by Multilingual Matters, some of which have now been withdrawn as they are no longer compatible with the .

Language Roles in the Street  - Indexicality of Street Signs  - The Punctuation of Street Signs  - Structures of Street Signs 

1. Naming   2. Informing   3. Controlling   4. Serving

ALL CAPS  -  all lowercase   - handwritten  - relief and engraved  - mixed lowerCase and Capitals   Capitals

- stone - metal - paper - painted - blackboards

Signs with list structures
See also: Bilingual Notices  
Novel shop names

Street signs in:
Colchester  Dublin  Newcastle upon Tyne  Penang  Perugia  Northumberland


Cook, V.J. (2017), 'The letters of the street', rejected paper, now part of a book in progress

Cook, V. J. (2013), 'The language of the street', Applied Linguistics Review, 4(1): 43-81, DOI 10.1515/applirev-2013-0003

Cook, V.J. (2013), 'Standard punctuation and the punctuation of the street', in M. Pawlak and L. Aronin (eds.), Essential Topics in Applied Linguistics and Multilingualism, Springer International Publishing Switzerland, 267-290

Cook, V.J. (2014), 'Meaning and material in the language of the street', Social Semiotics,

Other paper still offline:
- Naming in the language of the street

This page was formerly at, which is now closed.