Reading list for the book, The English Writing System, 2004

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Akamatsu, N. (1998). L1 and L2 reading: the orthographic effects of Japanese on reading in English. Language, Culture and Curriculum 11, 1, 9-27.

Adult ESOL Core Curriculum in England(DfES, 2001).

Albrow, K.H. (1972). The English Writing System: Notes towards a Description. London: Longman.

Angell, D. & Heslop, B. (1994). The Elements of E-mail Style. Addison-Wesley.

Aronoff, M. (1992). Segmentalism in linguistics: the alphabetic basis of phonological theory. In Downing, P., Lima, S.D. & Noonan, M. (eds.) The Linguistics of Literacy. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 71-82.

Bailey, B. (2000). Human interaction speeds, human factors. Internal e-Newsletter.

Baines, P. & Haslam, A. (2002). Type and Typography. London: Laurence King.

Balhorn, M. 1998. Paper representation of the non-standard voice. Visible Language 32, 1, 56-74.

Baron, N.S. (2000). Alphabet to E-mail. London: Routledge.

Bayraktar, M., Say, B. & Akman, V. (1998). An analysis of English punctuation: the special case of the comma. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 3, 1, 33-57.

Bebout, L. (1985). An error analysis of misspellings made by learners of English as a first and as a second language. J. Psycholing. Res. 14, 569-93.

Bernard, M., Mills, M., Peterson, M. & Storrer, K. (2001). A comparison of popular online fonts: which is best and when? Usability News 3, 1.

Bennett, J.A. & Berry, J. (1991). Cree literacy in the syllabic script. In D.R. Olson & N. Torrance (ed.). Literacy & Orality. Cambridge University Press, 90-104.

Besner, D. and Chapnik Smith, M. (1992). Basic processes in reading: is the orthographic depth hypothesis sinking? In R. Frost and L. Katz. (eds.) Orthography, Phonology, Morphology and Meaning. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers.

Biber, D. (1988). Variation across Speech and Writing. Cambridge University Press.

Biber, D. (1995). Dimensions of Register Variation. Cambridge University Press.

Biber, D, Conrad, S. & Reppen, R. (1999). Corpus Linguistics: investigating language structure and use. Cambridge University Press.

Bloomfield, L. (1933). Language. New York: Holt.

Brengelmann, F.H. (1980). Orthoeptists, printers and the rationalisation of English spelling. Journal of English and Germanic Philology. 79, 332-354.

Bringhurst, R. (1992). The Elements of Typographic Style. Vancouver: Hartley and Marks.

British National Corpus (BNC) (1995). Oxford University Computing Services.

Bromley, T. (2002). Dialect spelling: a study of the effects of a child's dialect on their spelling. MA dissertation, University of Essex.

Brooks, G., Gorman, T. & Kendall, L. (1993). Spelling It Out: the Spelling Abilities of 11- and 15-year-olds. Slough: NFER.

Brown, G. (1977). Listening to Spoken English. London: Longman.

Brown, T. & Haynes, M. (1985). Literacy background and reading development in a second language. In T.H. Carr (ed.). The Development of Reading Skill. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 19-34.

Bruce, D..J (1964). The analysis of word sounds by young children. British Journal of Educational Psychology 34, 158-70.

Bryant, P.E., Nunes, T. and Bindman, M. (1997). Children's understanding of the connection between grammar and spelling. In B. Blachman (ed.). Linguistic underpinnings of reading. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. (219-240).

Bryson, B. (1991). Mother Tongue: the English Language. Penguin

Burchfield, R.W. (1996). The New Fowlers Modern English Usage 3rd ed. edited by R.W. Burchfield. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Cameron, D. (1995). Verbal Hygeine. London: Routledge.

Carey, G. (1960). Mind the Stop. Cambridge University Press.

Carney, E. (1994). A Survey of English Spelling. London: Routledge.

Castles, A. & Coltheart, M. (1993). Varieties of developmental dyslexia. Cognition 47, 149-180.

Catach, N. (1993). L'ortographe. Que-sais-je? Paris: PUF.

Chafe, W.L. (1982). Integration and involvement in speaking, writing and oral literature In Tannen, D. (ed.) (1982). 35-54.

Chafe W. (1988). Punctuation and the prosody of written language. Written Communication 5, 4, 396-426.

Cherny, L. (1999). Conversation and Community: Chat in a Virtual World. Stanford: CSLI.

Chesterfield, Lord P.C. (1775) Letters to his Son. Reprinted London: Folio Society, 1973.

Chikamatsu, N. (1996). The effects of L1 orthography on L2 word recognition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 18, 403-432.

Chomsky, C. (1970). Reading, writing and phonology. Harvard Educational Review 40, 2, 287-309.

Chomsky, N. (1972). Phonology and reading. In Levin, H. (ed.) Basic Processes in Reading. Harper and Row, 3-18.

Chomsky, N. (2002). On Nature and Language. Cambridge University Press.

Chomsky, N. & Halle, M. (1968). The Sound Pattern of English. Harper & Row.

Clancy, P.M. (1982). Written and spoken style in Japanese narratives. In Tannen, D. (ed.) (1982). 55-76.

COBUILD English Dictionay (1995). London: HarperCollins

Collins, F.H. (1973) Authors and Printers Dictionary. 11th edition. Oxford University Press.

Collot, M. & Belmore, N. (1996). Electronic language: A new variety of English. In S. C. Herring (ed.). Computer-mediated communication: Linguistic, social and cross-cultural perspectives Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 13-28.

Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (Council of Europe, 2001). Language_Policy/Common_Framework_of_Reference/.

Cook, V.J. (1997). L2 users and English spelling. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 18, 6, 474-488.

Cook, V.J. (1997b). Inside Language. Edward Arnold

Cook, V.J. (1999). Going beyond the native speaker in language teaching. TESOL Quarterly 33, 2, 185-209.

Cook, V.J. (2002). Background to the L2 user. In V.J. Cook (ed.) Portraits of the L2 User. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Cook, V.J. (ed.) (2003). Effects of the Second Language on the First. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Cook, V. & Bassetti, B. (eds) (in preparation). Second Language Writing Systems and Biliteracy. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Cook, V.J. & Newson, M. (1996) Chomsky's Universal Grammar. Second edition. Oxford: Blackwell.

Cornbleet, S. & Carter, R. (2001). The Language of Speech and Writing. London: Routledge.

Coulmas, F. (1996). The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Writing Systems. Oxford: Blackwell.

Crystal, D. (2001). Language and the Internet. Cambridge University Press.

Cummings, D.W. (1988). American English Spelling : an Informal Description. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.

Danielewicz, J. & Chafe, W. (1985). How 'normal' speaking leads to 'erroneous' punctuating. In Freedman, S. (ed.) The Acquisition of Written Language. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 213-225.

de Saussure, F. (1916). Cours de Linguistique Generale. C. Bally, A., Sechehaye & A. Reidlinger (edd.). Paris: Payot. Trans (1959). Course in General Linguistics. London: Peter Owen.

DeFrancis, J. (1984). The Chinese Language: Fact and Fantasy. University of Hawaii Press.

DeFrancis, J. (1996). How efficient is the Chinese writing system? Visible Language 30, 1, 6-44.

Derwing, B.L. (1992). Orthographic aspects of linguistic competence. In Downing, P., Lima, S.D. & Noonan, M. (eds.) The Linguistics of Literacy. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 193–210.

Diringer, D. (1953). The Book Before Printing. New York: Dover.

Diringer, D. (1962). Writing. London: Thames and Hudson.

Dixon, C. (2001). Systematizing the platypus: a perspective on type design classification. In E. Kindel, Typeform Dialogues. London: Hyphen Press.

Donaldson, M. (1978). Children's Minds. Fontana.

Ethnologue: Languages of the World: Fourteenth Edition (1996). Online document:

Faber, A. (1992). Phonemic segmentation as epiphenomenon: evidence from the history of alphabetic writing. In Downing, P., Lima, S.D. & Noonan, M. (eds.). The Linguistics of Literacy. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 111-134.

Feynman, R.P. (1998). The Meaning of It All: Thoughts of a Citizen Scientist. Helix Books.

Firth, J.R (1951). Modes of meaning. In Firth, J.R., Essays and Studies. English Association, 118-149.

Fowler, H.W. (1926). A Dictionary of Modern English Usage. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Freeborn, D. (1998). From Old English to Standard English. Basingstoke: Palgrave.

Fries, C.C. (1952). The Structure of English. London: Longman.

Frith, Uta (1985). Beneath the surface of developmental dyslexia. In K.E. Patterson, J.C. Marshall and M. Coltheart (eds.). Surface Dyslexia. Lawrence Erlbaum, 301-330.

Funnell, E. (1983). Phonological processes in reading: new evidence from acquired dyslexia. British Journal of Psychology 74, 159-180.

Gill, E. (1931). An Essay on Typography: London: Lund Humphries.

Glen, D. (2001). Printing Type Designs. Fife: Akros.

Golden Apostrophe Awards, The (2002).

Goody, J. (2000). The Power of the Written Tradition. Washington: Smithsonian Institute.

Görlach, M. (1991). Introduction to Early Modern English. Cambridge University Press.

Goswami, U (1999). Integrating orthographic and phonological knowledge as reading develops: onsets, rimes, and analogies in children's reading. In P.McMullum and R. Klein (eds.). Converging Methods for Understanding Reading and Dyslexia. Hillsdale: Erlbaum

Goswami, U. & Bryant, P. (1990). Phonological Skills and Learning to Read. Erlbaum.

Greengrocer's Apostrophe, The (2003).

Gruber, H. (2000). Scholarly email discussion list postings: a single new genre of academic communication? In Pemberton & Shurville (eds) 36-43.

Hall, N. & Robinson, N. (eds.) (1996). Learning about Punctuation. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Halliday, M.A.K. (1975). Learning How to Mean. London: Edward Arnold.

Halliday, M.A.K. (1985). Spoken and Written Language. Oxford University Press.

Hanson, V.L., Goodell, E.W. & Perfetti, C.A. (1991). Tongue twister effects in the silent reading of hearing and deaf college students. Journal of Memory and Language 30, 319-330.

Harris, R. (1986). The Origin of Writing. London: Duckworth.

Hart, J. (1569). An Orthographie, conteyning the due order and reason, howe to write or paint thimage of mannes voice, most like to the life or nature.

Hartley, J. & Burnhill, P. (1971). Experiments with unjustified text. Visible Language V, 3, 265-278.

Hart's Rules for compositors and readers at the University Press, Oxford (1983). 39th edition. Oxford University Press.

Haynes, M. & Carr, T.H. (1990). Writing system background and second language reading: a component skills analysis of English reading by native-speaking readers of Chinese. In T.H. Carr & B.A. Levy (eds). Reading and its Development: Component Skills Approaches. San Diego: Academic Press, 375-421.

Herring, S. (ed.) (1996). Computer-Mediated Communication. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Holm, A. & Dodd, B. (1996). The effect of first written language on the acquisition of English literacy. Cognition 59, 119-147.

Householder, F.W. (1971). Linguistic Speculations. Cambridge University Press.

Huang, H.S. & Hanley, J.R. (1994). Phonological awareness and visual skills in learning to read Chinese and English. Cognition 54, 73-98.

Hughes, R. (1996). Comprehending Oral and Written Language. London: Routledge.

Ibrahim, M. (1978). Patterns in spelling errors. ELTJ 32, 207-12.

Jackson, D. (1981). The Story of Writing. London: Studio Vista.

Jacobson, S. (1966). Unorthodox Spelling in American Trademarks. Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksell.

Jaffe, A. (2000). Non-standard orthography and non-standard speech. Journal of Sociolinguistics 4, 4, 497-514

Jaquith, J.R. (1976). Digraphia in advertising. Visible Language X, 4, 295-308.

Jarvie, G. (1992). Good Punctuation Guide. Edinburgh: Chambers.

Johnston, E. (1905). Writing & Illuminating & Lettering. London: Pitman.

Jones, R.F. (1953). The Triumph of the English Language. Stanford University Press.

Joy of Text, The (2001). London: Corgi.

Katz, L. & Frost, R. (1992). Reading in different orthographies: the orthographic depth hypothesis. In R. Frost & L. Katz (eds.). Orthography, Phonology, Morphology and Meaning. Elsevier, 67-84

Katzner, K. (1986). The Languages of the World. London: Routledge.

King, G. (2000). Collins Wordpower: Punctuation. Collins.

Koda, K. (1987). Cognitive strategy transfer in second language reading. In J. Devine, P. Carrell & D. Eskey (eds.). Research in reading in English as a second language. Washington, D.C.: TESOL, 127-144.

Koda, K. (1996). L2 word recognition research: a critical review. Modern Language Journal 80, iv, 450-460.

Krapp, G.P (1960) The English Language in America. Continuum.

Kreiner, D. (1992). Reaction time measures of spelling: testing a two-strategy model of skilled spelling. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 18(4)

Kress, G. (2000). Early Spelling. London: Routledge

Labov, W. (1994). Principles of Linguistic Change: Internal Factors. Oxford: Blackwell.

Leech, G., Rayson, P. & Wilson A. (2001). Word Frequencies in Written and Spoken English. Harlow: Longman.

Levinson, S.C (1996). Relativity in spatial conception and description. In J.J. Gumperz and S.C. Levinson (eds.). Rethinking Linguistic Relativity. Cambridge University Press, 177-202.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (1978). Harlow: Longman.

Lowth, R. (1775). Short Introduction to English Grammar. Delmar, N.Y.: Scholars' Facsimiles & Reprints, 1979.

Luria, A.R. (1976). Cognitive Development: Its Cultural And Social Foundations. Harvard University Press.

Lyons, J. (1968). Introduction to Theoretical Linguistics. Cambridge University Press.

Macdonald-Ross, M. & Waller, R. (1975). Open University Texts: Criticisms and Alternatives. Milton Keynes: Open University.

Maddiesen, I. (1984). Patterns of Speech. Cambridge University Press.

Malinowski, B. (1923). The problem of meaning in primitive languages. In C.K. Ogden and I.A. Richards. The Meaning of Meaning. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

McArthur, T. (ed.) (1992). The Oxford Companion to the English Language. Oxford University Press.

McCaskill, M.K. (1998). Grammar, Punctuation, and Capitalization: A Handbook for Technical Writers and Editors. Hampton, Virginia: NASA SP-7084, on-line at

McIntosh, R. (1990). Hyphenation. Halifax: Hyphen House.

Merriam-Websters Guide to Punctuation and Style (2002). Merriam-Webster.

Meyer, C.F. (1987). A Linguistic Study of American Punctuation. New York: Peter Lang.

Mitchell, B. & Robinson, F.C. (2001). A Guide to Old English. Oxford: Blackwell. 6th edition.

Morison, S. (1968), Letter Forms: Typographic and Scriptorial. New York

Mulcaster, R (1582). The First Part of the Elementarie. Edited by E.T. Campagnac. Clarendon Press, 1925.

Murray, D.E. (1988). The context of oral and written language: a framework for mode and medium switching. Language & Speech 17, 351-373.

Nation, I.S.P. (2001). Learning vocabulary in another language. Cambridge University Press.

National Curriculum for England: English (1999). London: Qualifications and Curriculum Authority.

Neville, A. (1563). Oedipus (translation, with preface).

Nunberg, G. (1990). Linguistics of Punctuation. Stanford: CSLI.

Nunes, T., P. Bryant and M. Bindham (1997). Spelling and Grammar—The NECSED Move. In C.A. Perfetti, L. Rieben & M. Fayol (eds.) Learning to Spell: Research, Theory, and Practice Across Languages. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 151-170.

Olson, D.R. (1996). Toward a psychology of literacy: on the relations between speech and writing. Cognition 60, 83-104.

Olson, R.K., Kleigl, R., Davidson, B.J. & Foltz, G. (1985). Individual and developmental differences in reading ability. In G.E.Mackinnon & T.G.Waller (eds). Reading Research: Advances in Theory and Practice Vol. 4. New York: Academic Press, 1-64.

Ong, W.J. (1982). Orality and Literacy: the Technologizing of the Word. London: Methuen.

Oxford English Dictionary (OED) (1994). CD-ROM version 1.13. Oxford University Press.

Parkes, M.B. (1992). Pause and Effect: An Introduction to the History of Punctuation in the West. Aldershot: Scolar Press.

Partridge, A. (1964). Orthography in Shakespeare and Elizabethan Drama. London: Edward Arnold.

Partridge, E. (1953). You Have A Point There. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Patterson, K.E. & Morton, J. (1985). From orthography to phonology: an attempt at an old interpretation. In K.E. Patterson, J.C. Marshall & M. Coltheart (eds.). Surface Dyslexia. London: Erlbaum, 335-359.

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Perfetti, C.A. (1999). Comprehending written language; a blueprint of the reader. In Brown, C. & Hagoort, P. (eds.). The Neurocognition of Language. Oxford University Press, 167-210.

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Rozin, P., Poritsky, S. & Sotsky, R. (1971). American children with reading problems can easily learn to read English represented by Chinese characters. Science 171, 1264-7.

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Treiman, R., Kessler, B. & Bourassa, D. (2001). Children's own names influence their spelling. Applied Psycholinguistics 22, 555-570.

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Venezky, R.L. (1999). The American Way of Spelling. New York: Guilford Press.

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