Vivian Cook  SLL and LT

‘Into the face of the young man who sat on the terrace of the Hotel Magnifique at Cannes there had crept a look of furtive shame, the shifty hangdog look which announces that an Englishman is about to talk French.’ P.G. Wodehouse (1935), The Luck of the Bodkins, p.1

For an actual test go to Motivation Test


integrative motivation learning the language in order to take part in the culture of its people
instrumental motivation learning the language for a career goal or other practical reason
additive bilingualism L2 learning that adds to the learner's capabilities
subtractive bilingualism  L2 learning that takes away from the learner's capabilities

Motivation and L2 learning

— both integrative and instrumental motivations may lead to success, but lack of either causes problems
— motivation in this sense has great inertia
— short-term motivation towards the day-to-day activities in the classroom and general motivations for classroom learning are also important

The main reasons students give for studying a modern language (Coleman, 1996)


For my future career

2. Because I like the language
3. To travel in different countries
4. To have a better understanding of the way of life in the country or countries where it is spoken
5. Because I would like to live in the country where it is spoken
6. Because I am good at it
7. Because it is an international language
8. To become a better-educated person
9. To meet a greater variety of people in my life
10. To get to know/make friends among the people who speak it

Motivation in children
from 5 countries

Motivation in 5 countries


Clement, R. & Kruidenier, B.G. (1983), 'Orientations in second language acquisition: I. the effects of ethnicity, milieu, and target language on their emergence', Language Learning, 33, 3, 274-291

Cook, V.J. (1991), Second Language Learning and Language Teaching, Arnold 2nd ed 96

Crookes, G. & Schmidt, R.W. (1991), ‘Motivation: reopening the research agenda’, Language Learning, 41, 4, 469-512

Dornyei, Z. (1990), ‘Conceptualising motivation in foreign-language learning’, Language Learning, 40, 1, 45-78

Dornyei, Z. (2001), Teaching and Researching Motivation, London : Longman

Gardner, R. (1985), Social Psychology and Second Language Learning, Arnold, London

Gardner, R.C. & Lambert, W. E. (1972), Attitudes and Motivation in Second Language Learning, Newbury House, Rowley, Mass.

Lambert, W.E. (1990), 'Persistent issues in bilingualism', in Harley, B., Allen, P., Cummins, J. & Swain, M. (eds.) (1990), The Development of Second Language Proficiency, CUP

Skehan, P. (1989), Individual Differences in Second-Language Learning, Arnold, London