Second Language Learning and Language Teaching Website
 Vivian Cook   Keywords

SLA References

Note: coursebooks are given in a Separate list. Weblinks are on Links page.

Abrahamsson, N. and Hyltenstam, K. (2009) Age of onset and nativelikeness in a second language: listener perception versus linguistic scrutiny. Language Learning, 59, 249-306

Adamson, H. and Regan, V. (1991) The acquisition of community norms by Asian immigrants learning English as a second language: a preliminary study. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 13, 1, 1-22

Agbedo, C.U., Krisagbedo, E.C., and Eze, V.O. (2012) Mother Tongue Education as Agency of Decolonisation: Implications for National Development in Nigeria. Developing Country Studies, 2, 11, 170-1

Alptekin, C. and Atakan, S. (1990) Field-dependence–independence and hemisphericity as variables in L2 achievements. Second Language Research 6, 2, 139-49

Anderson, J. (1993) Rules of the Mind. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates,

Andreou, G., Vlachos, F. and Andreou E. (2005) Affecting factors in second language learning. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, Vol. 34, No. 5, 429-438

Anthony, E.M. (1963) Approach, method and technique. English Language Teaching 17, 63-67

Anton, M. and DiCamilla, F. (1998) Socio-cognitive functions of L1 collaborative interaction in the L2 classroom. Canadian Modern Language Review 54, 3, 414–342

Assessment and Qualification Alliance (AQA) (2007) GCSE French Specification 2009,

Arnberg, L. (1987) Raising Children Bilingually: The Pre-school Years. Clevedon, Avon: Multilingual Matters

ASD Simplified Technical English Maintenance Group (STEMG) (2007) Simplified Technical English.

Asher, J.J. (1986) Learning Another Language Through Actions: The Complete Teachers Guidebook. Los Gatos, CA: Sky Oaks Productions

Asher, J.J. and Garcia, R. (1969). The optimal age to learn a foreign language. Modern Language Journal 53, 5, 33-41

Asher, J.J. and Price, B. (1967) The learning strategy of the total physical response: some age differences. Child Development 38, 1219-27

Assessment and Qualification Alliance (AQA) (2007). GCSE French Specification 2009,

Athanasopoulos, P. 2009. ‘Cognitive representation of color in bilinguals: the case of Greek blues’, Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 12, 83-95

Atkinson, R.C. (1975). Mnemnotechnics in second language learning. American Psychologist 30, 821-828

Bacon, S. (1987) Differentiated cognitive style and oral performance. In VanPatten, B., Dvorak, T.R. and Lee, J.F. (eds.) Foreign Language Learning: A Research Perspective, Rowley MA: Newbury House

Baetens Beardsmore, H. (ed.) (1993) European Models of Bilingual Education. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Bahrick, H.P. (1984) Fifty years of second language attrition: implications for programmatic research. Modern Language Journal 68, 105-118

Baker, P. and Eversley, J. (2000) Multilingual Capital. London: Battlebridge

Balandin, S. and Iacono, T. (1999) Crews, Wusses and Whoppas: Core and Fringe Vocabularies of Australian Meal-Break Conversations in the Workplace Augmentative and Alternative Communication 15, June

Bates, E. and MacWhinney, B. (1981) Second language acquisition from a functionalist perspective. In Winitz, H. (ed.), Native Language and Foreign Language Acquisition, Annals of the NY Academy of Sciences 379, 190-214

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Ben Zeev, S. (1977) Mechanisms by which childhood bilingualism affects understanding of language and cognitive structure. In P.A. Hornby (ed.) Bilingualism: Psychological, Social, and Educational Implications. New York: Academic Press, 29-55

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Bhatt, R.M. (2005) Expert discourses, local practices, and hybridity: the case of Indian Englishes. In Canagarajah, A.S. (ed.), Reclaiming the Local in Language Policy and Practice. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 25-54

Bialystok, E. (1990) Communication Strategies: A Psychological Analysis of Second-Language Use. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Bialystok, E., Craik, F.I.M. and Freedman, M. (2007) Bilingualism as a protection against the onset of symptoms of dementia. Neuropsychologia, 45, 459-464

Biko, S. (1978) I Write What I Like. The Bowerdan Press. Reprinted London: Penguin (1998)

Blackwell, A. and Broeder, P. (1992) Interference and Facilitation in SLA: A Connectionist Perspective, Seminar on PDP and NLP, San Diego, UCSD, May.

Bloom, P. (2002) How Children Learn the Meanings of Words. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press

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Bonnet, G. (ed.) ( 2002) The Assessment of Pupils Skills in English in Eight European Countries. The European Network of Policy Makers for the Evaluation of Education Systems

Broeder, P. and Plunkett, P. (1994) Connectionism and second language acquisition. In Ellis, N. (ed.), Implicit and Explicit Learning of Languages. London: Academic Press, 421-453

Bellugi, U. and Brown, R. (eds.) (1964). The Acquisition of Language. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 29, 92

Bruner, J. (1983) Childs Talk. Oxford: Oxford University Press

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Buzan, T, (2009). The Mind Map Book. London: BBC

Bygate, M., Skehan, P. and Swain, M. (2001) Researching pedagogic tasks, second language learning, teaching and testing. Harlow: Longman

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Canagarajah, A.S. (2005) Reconstructing local knowledge, reconfiguring language studies. In Canagarajah, A.S. (ed.), Reclaiming the Local in Language Policy and Practice. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 3-24

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Chamot, A. (2005) ‘Language learning strategy instruction: current issues and research’, Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 25, 112-130

Chikamatsu, N. (1996) The effects of L1 orthography on L2 word recognition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 18, 403-432

Chomsky, N. (1959) Review of B.F. Skinner Verbal Behavior. Language 35, 26-58

Chomsky, N. (1965) Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge, Ma.: MIT Press

Chomsky, N. (1976) Reflections on Language. Temple Smith

Chomsky, N. (1980) Rules and Representations. Oxford: Blackwell

Chomsky, N. (1986) Knowledge of Language: Its Nature, Origin and Use. New York: Praeger.

Chomsky, N. (1995) The Minimalist Program. Cambridge, Ma.: MIT Press

Chomsky, N. (2000) The Architecture of Language. New Delhi: Oxford University Press

Clachar, A. (1997) Ethnolinguistic identity and Spanish proficiency in a paradoxical situation: the case of Puerto Rican return migrants. J.M.M.D. 18, 2, 107-124

Clark, E. (1971) On the acquisition of "before" and "after". Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 10, 266-275

Clark, M.A. (1984) On the nature of techniques; what do we owe the gurus? TESOL Quarterly 18, 4,577-584

Cobbett, W. (1819) A Grammar of the English Language. Reprinted by Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984

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Cook, V.J. Note: drafts of most of my papers are online at

Cook, V.J.(1977) Cognitive processes in second language learning. IRAL XV/1, 73-90

Cook, V.J.(1982) Kategorisierung und Fremdsprachenerwerb. Gegenwartige Probleme and Aufgaben der Fremdsprachen-psychologie. Leipzig: Karl Marx University

Cook, V.J.(1983) What should language teaching be about? English Language Teaching Journal 37, 3, 229-234

Cook, V.J.(1986) Experimental approaches applied to two areas of second language learning research: age and listening-based teaching methods. In V.J. Cook (ed.) Experimental Approaches to Second Language Learning, Oxford: Pergamon, 23-37

Cook, V.J.(1989) Reciprocal language teaching: another alternative. Modern English Teacher 16, 3/4, 48‑53

Cook, V.J.(1993) Linguistics and Second Language Acquisition. Basingstoke: Macmillan

Cook, V.J.(1994) Universal Grammar and the learning and teaching of second languages. In T. Odlin (ed.), Perspectives on Pedagogical Grammar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 25-48

Cook, V.J. (1997) Inside Language. London: Edward Arnold

Cook, V.J. (2001) Using the first language in the classroom. Canadian Modern Language Review 57, 3, 402-423

Cook, V.J. (ed.) (2003) Effects of the Second Language on the First. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters

Cook, V.J. (2004) Accomodating Brocolli in the Cemetary. London: Profile

Cook, V.J. (2004). The English Writing System. London: Edward Arnold

Cook, V.J. (2007) ‘The goals of ELT: reproducing native-speakers or promoting multi-competence among second language users?’ in J. Cummins and C. Davison (eds), Handbook on English Language Teaching, Kluwer, 237-248, 2007

Cook, V.J. (2009) Language user groups and language teaching. In V.J. Cook and Li Wei (eds) Contemporary Applied Linguistics Volume 1 Language Teaching and Learning, Continuum, 54-74

Cook, V.J. (2009) It’s All in a Word. London: Profile

Cook, V.J. (2010a) Prolegomena to second language learning. In P. Seedhouse, S. Walsh and C. Jenks (eds.), Conceptualising Language Learning. London: Palgrave MacMillan, 6-22

Cook, V.J. (2010b) Questioning traditional assumptions of language teaching. Nouveaux cahiers de linguistique française, 29, 7-22,2010

 Cook, V.J. (2010c) The relationship between first and second language acquisition revisited, in E. Macaro (ed.) The Continuum Companion to Second Language Acquisition. London: Continuum, 137-157, 2010

Cook, V., Al-Ebary, K., Al-Garawi, B., Chang, C-Y., Huang, K., Lee, S., Li, G., Mitani, H. and Sieh, Y-C. (2007) Effects of cue processing in the Competition Model on the first language of L2 users. Paper presented at the 17th EUROSLA annual conference, Newcastle upon Tyne

Cook, V.J. and Bassetti, B. (ed.) (2005). Second Language Writing Systems. Multilingual Matters

Cook V.J., and Bassetti, B. (2011) Language and Bilingual Cognition. New York: Taylor and Francis

Cook, V.J., Bassetti, B., Kasai, C., Sasaki, M. and Takahashi, J.A. (2006) Do bilinguals have different concepts? The case of shape and material in Japanese L2 users of English. International Journal of Bilingualism 2, 137-152

Cook, V.J., Iarossi, E., Stellakis, N. and Tokumaru, Y. (2003) Effects of the second language on the syntactic processing of the first language. In V.J. Cook (ed.), Effects of the Second Language on the First. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 214-233

Cook, V.J. and Li Wei (eds.) (2016) The Cambridge Handbook of Linguistic Multicompetence, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Cook, V.J. and Newson, M. (2007) Chomsky’s Universal Grammar: an Introduction. 3rd edition.Oxford: Blackwell

Cook, V.J. and Ryan, D. (eds.) (2016) The Routledge Handbook of the English Writing System.  Routledge

Cook, V.J. and Singleton, D. (2014) Key Topics in Second Language Acquisition. Bristol: Multilingual Matters

Coppetiers, R. (1987) Competence differences between native and near-native speakers. Language 63, 3, 545-573

Corder, S.P. (1981) Error Analysis and Interlanguage. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Coulmas, F. (1996) The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Writing System. Oxford: Blackwell

Coyle, D., Hood, P. and Marsh, D. (2010) CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

English Language Syllabus  (Singapore)  (2010) (CPPD, Ministry of Education, Singapore

Crago, M. (1992) Communicative interaction and second language acquisition: an Inuit example. TESOL Quarterly 26, 3, 487-506

Cruse, D.A. (1986) Lexical Semantics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Cuban Ministry of Education (1999) Principios que rigen la ensenÍanza del ingles en la escuala media. Cuba: Ministry of Education

Cummins, J. (1981) Age on arrival and immigrant second language learning in Canada: a reassessment. Applied Linguistics 2, 132-49

Curran, C.A. (1976) Counselling-Learning in Second Languages. Apple River, Illinois: Apple River Press

De Bot, K. (2016) Multi-competence and dynamic/complex systems. In V.J. Cook and Li Wei (eds) Cambridge Handbook of Linguistic Multi-competence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

De Groot, A.M.B. (2002) Lexical representation  and lexical processing in the L2 user. In V.J. Cook (ed.), Portraits of the L2 User, Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 29‑64

De Groot, A.M.B., & Van Hell, J. G. (2005). The learning of foreign language vocabulary. In: J. F. Kroll & A. M. B. de Groot (Eds.), Handbook of bilingualism: Psycholinguistic approaches (pp. 9-29). Oxford: Oxford University Press

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De Swaan, A. (2001) Words of the World: The Global Language System. Cambridge: Polity Press.

DeKeyser, R.M. (1997) Beyond explicit rule learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 19, 195-221

DeKeyser, R. (2005) What makes learning second-language grammar difficult? A review of issues. Language Learning 55, 1-25

DeKeyser, R. and Larson-Hall (2005) What does the critical period really mean? In Kroll, J. and De Groot, A. (eds), Handbook of Bilingualism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 88-108

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Dickerson, W. (1987) Explicit rules and the developing interlanguage phonology. In A. James and J. Leather (eds.) (1987), Sound Patterns in Second Language Acquisition. Dordrecht: Foris

Dickinson, L. (1987) Self-instruction in Language Learning, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Dodson, C.J. (1967) Language Teaching and The Bilingual Method. London: Pitman

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Dornyei, Z. (2005) The Psychology of the Language Learner: Individual Differences in Second Language Acquisition. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

Doughty, C. (2001) Cognitive underpinnings of focus on form. In P. Robinson (ed.) Cognition and Second Language Instruction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 206-257

Doughty, C. and Williams, J. (eds.) (1998) Focus on Form in Classroom Second Lang­uage Acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

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Dulay, H. and Burt, M. (1973) Should we teach children syntax? Language Learning 3, 245-57                                                                                                                                    

Dulay, H, Burt, M. and Krashen, S. (1982) Language Two. Oxford: Oxford University Press

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Edinburgh Word Association Thesaurus

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Faerch, C. and Kasper, G. (1984) Two ways of defining communication strategies. Language Learning, 34, 45-63

Firth, A. (1996) The discursive accomplishment of normality: on lingua franca English and conversation analysis. Journal of Pragmatics 26, 237-59

Fishman, J.A. (1991) Reversing Language Shift. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters

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Foster, P. (1998) A classroom perspective on the negotiation of meaning. Applied Linguistics 19, 1, 1-23

Franklin, C.E.M. (1990) Teaching in the target language. Language Learning Journal Sept, 20-24

Freire, P. (1972) Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Harmondsworth: Penguin

Gallagher-Brett, A. (no date) Seven Hundred Reasons for Studying Languages. The Higher Education Academy LLAS (languages, Linguistics, Area Studies, University of Southampton Accessed January 2008

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Galyean, B. (1977) A confluent design for language teaching. TESOL Quarterly 11, 2, 143-156

Garcia Mayo, M. del P. (2007) Tasks, negotiation and L2 learning in a foreign language context. In M. Garcia Mayo (ed.), Investigating Tasks in Formal Language Learning. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 44-68

Gardner, R. (1985) Social Psychology and Second Language Learning. Edward Arnold: London

Gardner, R. (2007) The socio-educational model of second language acquisition. EUROSLA Yearbook 6, 237-260

Gardner, R. and Lambert, W. (1972) Attitudes and motivation in second-language learning. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House

Gattegno, C. (1972) Teaching Foreign Languages in Schools: the Silent Way. Educational Solutions, New York

Genesee, F. (2002) Portrait of the bilingual child. In Cook (ed.), 161-179

Goldschneider, J.M. and DeKeyser, R.M. (2001) Explaining the Natural Order of L2 Morpheme Acquisition in English: a meta-analysis of multiple determinants. Language Learning 51, 1, 1-50

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Griffiths, R. and Sheen, R. (1992) Disembedded figures in the landscape: a reappraisal of L2 research on Field Dependence/Independence. Applied Linguistics 13, 2, 133-147

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Kilborn, K. and Cooreman, A. (1987) Sentence interpretation strategies in adult Dutch-English bilinguals. Applied Psycholinguistics 8,415-431

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Krashen, S. (1981a) Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning. Oxford: Pergamon

Krashen, S. (1981b) The “fundamental pedagogical principle in second language teaching”. Studia Linguistica, 35, 5-70

Krashen, S. (1985) The Input Hypothesis: issues and implications. Longman: New York

Krashen, S. (2003) Explorations in Language Acquisition and Use: The Taipei Lectures. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Krashen, S. (2013) Reading and vocabulary acquisition: supporting evidence and some objections. Iranian Journal of Language Teaching Research, 1, 27-33

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