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Summaries Chapter Ten

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The native speaker

Many definitions of 'native speaker' exist based on birth, knowledge and use.

Since languages have many different types of native speaker, if teaching takes the native speaker as the target. it still has to decide which native speaker.

Under the usual definition of ‘a person who has spoken a certain language since early childhood’, it is not possible for a second language learner to become a native speaker and is this is not a possible measure of L2 success  



L2 learning and codeswitching

Codeswitching is the use of two languages within the same conversation, often when the speaker is:
- reporting what someone has said
- highlighting something
discussing certain topics
emphasizing a particular social role.

Codeswitching consists of 84 per cent single word switches, 10 per cent phrases, 6 per cent clauses.



Ways of using the L1 in the classroom

A. Teacher conveying meaning

- teacher using L1 for conveying meaning of words or sentences

- teacher using L1 for explaining grammar

B. Teacher organising the class

- teacher using L1 for managing the classroom

- teacher using L1 for giving instructions for teaching activities

- L1 used for testing

C. Students using L1 within classroom

- students using L1 as part of main learning activity
- students using L1 incidentally within classroom activities


Pros and cons of native and non-native speaker teachers

Expat native speaker teachers     

Non-native speaker teachers

- provide a model of native speaker use 

- provide a model of L2 user use

- may be fluent in their L1   

- may not be so fluent in their L2

- know the L2 culture from the inside 

- know the L1 culture from the   outside

- may become less native over time

- may not change or may improve over  time

 - provide a model of someone who has learnt the L2 as an L1

 - provide a model of someone who has learnt the language as an L2

- may not have knowledge of the local educational system

 - know the local educational system

- may or may not have appropriate teacher training and qualifications     

- have appropriate teacher training and qualifications