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Summaries Chapter Five

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L1 and L2 writing systems

Students may have problems transferring various aspect of their L1 writing system to another language, such as:

        whether it is a sound-based or meaning-based writing system

        the direction in which writing goes on the page

        the ways of making letters




Spelling and L2 learning

        The English spelling system has a number of specific rules such as structure word rules.

        L2 learners of English make spelling mistakes based in part on their L1 writing system, in part on lack of knowledge of the English spelling rules.



Punctuation is used both as a guide for reading the sentence aloud and as a way of showing sentence structure.

Punctuation includes punctuation marks, use of capitals, word spaces and other features, all of which can vary between writing systems.




Writing Systems and Teaching

Teachers need to teach:

    the type of writing system, direction, letter-formation etc to students whose first writing system is different

    the rules and orthographic regularities of spelling

    the punctuation and capitalisation rules

    individual spellings of frequent words and of frequently mis-spelled words