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Vowel Correspondence Rules

A. silent e rule. A silent <e> following a single consonant shows that the preceding vowel letter corresponds to a long vowel; lack of an <e> shows a short vowel.

           long free        short checked
           
vowels            vowels

a        /ei/ Dane        /Q/ Dan
e
        /i:/  Pete         /e/  pet
i
         /ai/ fine          /I/  fin
o
        /U/ tote         // tot
u
        /(j)u:/ dune     // dun

B. the consonant doubling rule. A double consonant shows that the preceding vowel corresponds to a short vowel rather than a long one.

                       Single              Double
         
  consonant       consonant

a        /ei/ planing     /Q/ planning
e
        /i:/ beta           /e/ better
i
         /ai/ biter         /I/ bitter
o
        /U/ hoping    // hopping
u
        /(j)u:/ super    // supper