List of English structure (function) words

Vivian Cook

This list of 225 items was compiled for practical purposes some time ago as data for a computer parser for student English. Hence it listed alternative forms using 'n't etc and may have left out some less frequent forms like whilst. Weak (reduced) forms are given in IPA in brackets. To print out this webpage click PRINT

a (/e~/)  about  above  after  after  again  against  ago  ahead  all  almost  almost  along  already  also  although  always  am (/m~m~m/)  among  an /n~n/) and (/nd~n~n/)  any  are /a:~/  aren't  around  as (/z~z/)  at (/t~t/)  away 

backward  backwards  be  because  before  behind  below  beneath  beside  between  both  but  by 

can (/kn~kn/)  cannot  can't  cause  'cos  could  couldn't 

'd (had)  despite  did  didn't  do  does  doesn't  don't  down  during 

each  either  even  ever  every  except

for (/faw~f/) forward  from (/frm~frm/)

had hadn't  has  hasn't  have (/hv~hv~v~v/) haven't  he (hi:~h/)  her (/h~/) here  hers  herself  him (/hm~m/)  himself  his (/hz~z/)  how  however  I

if  in  inside  inspite  instead  into  is (/z~z/)  isn't  it  its  itself 

just

'll (will/shall /l/)  least  less  like

'm (them /m/) many  may  mayn't  me  might  mightn't  mine  more  most  much  must  mustn't  my  myself

near  need  needn't  needs  neither  never  no  none  nor  not  now

of  (/v~v/)  off  often  on  once  only  onto  or  ought  oughtn't  our  ours  ourselves  out  outside  over 

past  perhaps 

quite

're (are) rather

's (/z/)  seldom  several  shall  shan't  she  should  shouldn't  since  so  some  sometimes  soon 

than  that  the (/i:~/)  their  theirs  them  themselves  then  there  therefore  these  they  this  those  though  through  thus  till  to (/tu~t/) together  too  towards

under  unless  until  up  upon  us  used  usedn't (/jusnt/) usen't  usually

've very

was (wz~wz/)  wasn't  we  well  were  weren't  what  when  where  whether  which  while  who  whom  whose  why  will  with  without  won't  would  wouldn't

yet  you  your  yours  yourself  yourselves

Content and structure words

Grammar in language teaching (paper)

Vivian Cook 

Formerly at homepage.ntlworld.com/vivian.c, which is defunct