Online Versions of Papers and Articles
Vivian Cook

Home Page
    SLA Topics    Complete Publications list   Informal YouTubes

This collects various papers, reviews etc I have written, mostly about  language teaching, Chomsky, CALL, Second Language Acquisition (SLA), multi-competence or writing systems. Some have appeared in obscure places or not at all or a long time ago (some may appear eventually in revised forms), but I feel are worth making available to a wider audience, plus papers in progress. My straightforward published books and articles are listed in Publications List. The texts here may differ marginally from the published form and also some tables/phonetics symbols etc may not have transferred well to the web; they are unedited (tempting as it is!) except for formatting. Other materials on SLA and language teaching can be found in SLA Topics, on writing in Writing System Topics and on street signs in The Language of the Street.

Note: Home videos of odds and ends can be found on the YouTube site Itsallinaword, and on TESOLacademic.  And a video of a university public lecture is at Words Matter. And bits are on Twitter.


'The Language in Language and Thinking' VIAL Vigo International Journal of Applied Linguistics  (2021) ‘, 35-58

******* 2010s *******

Handmade: Review of Elena Pagliarini et al., “Children’s First Handwriting Productions Show a Rhythmic Structure”,’ Nature Scientific Reports 7, no. 5,516 (2017). Inference, 3, 3, 2017 link

More Galilean Challenges: a letter in response to Chomsky "The Galilean Challenge"   Inference 3, 2 (link) 2017

Premises of Multi-competence In Cook, V. & Li Wei (eds.) The Cambridge Handbook of Linguistics Multi-Competence (2016)

Background to the English Writing System In V. Cook and D. Ryan (eds) (2016) The Routledge Handbook of the English Writing System

Transfer and the relationships between the languages of multi-competence 2016

Communication is a worn-out word 2014 Contact (link)

The punctuation of the street  2014

ELF: central or atypical form of SLA? 2013

Key issues in SLA 2012

Starting Applied Linguistics research 2012

Presenting Applied Linguistics Research 2012

Multi-competence outline2012

Definition of native speaker 2012

Linguistic relativity & language teaching 2011

Relating language and cognition - the speaker of one language 2011

TEFL in Europe 2011

Consequences of the multi-competence perspective for second language acquisition research (rejected) 2011

Prolegomena to SLA Research 2010

The relationship between L1 and L2 acquisition revisited  2010

Questioning traditional assumptions in language teaching 2010 printed version

Who is the language user? Multi-competence and foreign language teaching 2010


Short 'think pieces' on vocabulary issues (drafts for It's All in a Word, 2009)

EasyTalk: The language of airlines
Concordancing: Finding out about words
How children learn words
What are dictionaries for?
What is a word?
What's in a word?
Does a meigui smell as sweet as a rose? The arbitrariness of meaning
Is the sea blue or do I just think it's blue? Linguistic relativity
Warning: words can damage your health
Where do words come from? The puzzle of Indo-European
Simplified Vocabularies - Political Correctness and Thought Control

Powerful Plurals- Pronouns and Status

SHORTS (drafts etc of short popular pieces)

 Is English pronunciation unique?

Nu Spelin' 4 Old

Getting in a Strop about Spelling

A is for Apes

G is for Gender

N is for Nicknames

The liter side of spelling

Can they spell your name in Karachi?

British & American style spelling

Helping children with spelling 

Is spelling really hard?

Hard Spell
Largely Historical stuff

******* 2000s *******

Applied linguistics and language teaching in the 21st century 2009

Developing links between SLA research and language teaching 2009

Groups of  L2 users 2009

Multilingual UG as the norm  2009

The multi-competence perspective and the teaching of British Sign Language 2009

The goals of ELT: Reproducing native-speakers or promoting multi-competence among second language users? 2007

Multi-competence and Universal Grammar 2007

The nature of the L2 user Plenary EUROSLA Antalya Oct 2006

Interlanguage, multi-competence and the problem of the ‘second’ language  2006

Multi-competence - black hole or wormhole?  2005

Syntactic differences of Japanese bilingual speakers of English  Vivian Cook, Chise Kasai and Miho Sasaki 2005

What is applied linguistics? popular article 2004

Bilingual cognition and language teaching (draft) Aug 2004 

The spelling of the regular past tense in English 2004

Written language and foreign language teaching 2004

Effects of the second language on the syntactic processing of the first 2003

Effects of the L2 on L1 Intro 2003

The poverty of the stimulus argument and L2 users of English 2003

Grammar in Second Language Learning BATJ 2003 abstract and notes

Basing teaching on the L2 user (draft) 2003

Bilingual Cognition Paper given at EUROSLA Basel Sept 2002

Requirements for a multilingual model of language production very rough working draft, comments welcome 2001

Using the L1 in language teaching 2001

The neglected role of written language in language teaching 2001

The innateness of a Universal Grammar principle in L2 users of English Essex Working Papers, November 2000

Is transfer the right word? paper given at 7th International Pragmatic Symposium, Budapest, July 2000

Language teaching materials for adults, draft

Spell it right materials for teaching spelling ca 2000

******* 1990s *******

Going beyond the native speaker in language teaching draft TESOL paper 1999 

Using SLA research in language teaching IJAL Draft

Funny Spelling unpublished, circa 1999

Teaching spelling unpublished 1999

Creating L2 users  JURNAL KURIKULUM JILID1 BIL 2 1999

Orthographic processes in L2 users unpublished, circa 1999

Spreading the influence of SLA research unpublished, circa 1999

Relating SLA research to language teaching materials, Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics 1998 (link)

Internal and external uses of a second language Essex Research Reports in Linguistics, 100-110, 1998

L2 users and English Spelling 1997

Monolingual bias in second language acquisition research, Revista Canaria de Estudios Ingleses 1997

The consequences of bilingualism for cognitive processing 1997

INSIDE LANGUAGE (1997) drafts
The sound system of language
Words and Meanings

What is human about language? chaptercut for space reasons

Perceptions of class and age in English vocabulary, unpublished, circa 1997

Some relationships between linguistics and second language research in K. Sajavaara and C. Fairweather (eds.), Approaches to Second Language Acquisition, Jyväskylä Cross-Language Studies 17, 7-13 Competence and multi-competence 1996

Minimalism, vocabulary and L2 learning paper given at AILA,  Jyvaskyla 1996

Strategies and UG theories unpublished Seville conference, circa 1996

The object of second language acquisition unpublished, circa 1995

Multi-competence and effects of age 1995

Timed grammaticality judgements of the head parameter in L2 learning, in G. Bartelt 1994

Grammar in language teaching, conference paper given in Ghent, circa 1994

Universal Grammar and second language learning and teaching 1994

The metaphor of access to Universal Grammar 1994

Learning and Teaching: five suggestions 1993

Evidence for multicompetence  1992

Relating Second Language Acquisition Research to Language Teaching 1992

The poverty of the stimulus argument and multicompetence 1991

Multicompetence - jeu d'esprit or paradigm shift,conference paper given in Salzburg 1991

Observational evidence and the UG theory of language acquisition 1990

Timed comprehension of Binding in Adult learners of English 1990

Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) type pieces

Universal Grammar considered as a parser that acquires language unpublished circa 1990

Designing CALL programs for communicative language teaching 1988

Designing a BASIC Parser for CALL CALICO Journal 1988

Natural language processing by computer and language teaching System 1986

Communication games with a microcomputer 1984

Structure drills on a ZX81 Modern English Teacher 1983

1980s *******

The relevance of grammar in the applied linguistics of language teaching Trinity College Dublin Occasional Papers, 22, 1989

Universal Grammar and the Language Classroom System 1989

Extrapolation in Micro-Artificial Languages 1988

The Basis for an Experimental Approach to Second Language Research 1986

Experimental Approaches Applied to Two Areas of Second Language Learning Research: Age and Listening-based Teaching Methods 1986

Do L2 Learners have a cognitive deficit?  1986

Universal Grammar and Second Language Acquisition 1985

Kategorisierung und Fremdsprachenerwerb, in Gegenwartige Probleme and Aufgaben der Fremdsprachen-psychologie, Karl Marx University, Leipzig, 1982, 65-70

Interaction sequences in L2 learning and teaching, IRAL Special Issue 1982

Some uses for second language learning research 1981 NY Academy of Science  

Second language acquisition from an interactionist viewpoint ISB-U 1981

An interactional framework for second Language Learning ms, circa 1981

Some neglected aspects of intonation 1980

Ancient bits and pieces on language teaching topics

Reciprocal language teaching: another alternative, Modern English Teacher 1989

Technique analysis - a tool for the teacher, MET 1988

"How To" exercises, ETAS 1700

What should language teaching be about? ELTJ 1983

Lost in a maze ca 1982

Some assumptions in the design of courses Trier 1983

Crossover dialogues, 1983

Structure drills and the language learner CMLR, 1982

Teaching vocabulary MET 1981

Two Fables for our Time: Designing Communicative Syllabuses Dunsford Papers, 1981

Making up characters for roleplay World Language English 1981

Using authentic materials in the classroom MET 1981 

We have ways of making you talk EFL Bulletin 1980

The English are only human ELTJ 1979

Some ways of organising language AVLJ 1978

Using recorded speech in the classroom ZE 1977

Creative aspect of language use AVLJ 1970

*** 1970s and beyond ***

First and Second Language Learning CILT 1979

Aspects of memory in secondary school language learners ISB Utrecht 1979

Survey of SLA learning, CILTR 1978

Language processes and language teaching 1977

Cognitive Processes in Second Language Learning 1977

A Note on Indirect Objects1976

Strategies in the comprehension of relative clauses 1975

Is explanatory adequacy adequate? 1974

The Comparison of Language Development in Native Children and Foreign Adults 1973

Which came first - the language or the concept? 1972

How children learn language 1971

Freedom and Control in Language Teaching Materials BAAL Seminar, York 1970

The analogy between first and second language learning 1969

Some types of oral structure drill 1968

Did You Say Stop? 1956 (juvenilia)



Review of A. Davies An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, System, 1999

Review of N. Smith and M. Tsimpli The Mind of a Savant, The Clarion, 1995 

Review of Peter Skehan A Cognitive Approach to Learning Language, 1998

Review of R. Bayley & D.R. Preston Second Language Acquisition and Linguistic Variation, John Benjamins 1996

The meaning of the word 'schizophrenic' comment sent occasionally to newspapers etc

Sam is the cat that is